Article page |
Health page |
Fruits and Vegetables
Heroes & Incredible peoples
Computer Science |
Chemistry, branch of science concerned with
the properties, composition, and structure of substances and the changes
they undergo when they combine or react under specified conditions.
Branches of Chemistry
Chemistry can be divided into branches according to either the substances
studied or the types of study conducted. The primary division of the first
type is between inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. Divisions of the
second type are physical chemistry and analytical chemistry.
The original distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry arose as
chemists gradually realized that compounds of biological origin were quite
different in their general properties from those of mineral origin; organic
chemistry was defined as the study of substances produced by living
organisms. However, when it was discovered in the 19th cent. that organic
molecules can be produced artificially in the laboratory, this definition
had to be abandoned. Organic chemistry is most simply defined as the study
of the compounds of carbon. Inorganic chemistry is the study of chemical
elements and their compounds (with the exception of carbon compounds).
Physical chemistry is concerned with the physical properties of materials,
such as their electrical and magnetic behavior and their interaction with
electromagnetic fields. Subcategories within physical chemistry are
thermochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical kinetics. Thermochemistry is
the investigation of the changes in energy and entropy that occur during
chemical reactions and phase transformations . Electrochemistry concerns the
effects of electricity on chemical changes and interconversions of electric
and chemical energy such as that in a voltaic cell. Chemical kinetics is
concerned with the details of chemical reactions and of how equilibrium is
reached between the products and reactants.
Analytical chemistry is a collection of techniques that allows exact
laboratory determination of the composition of a given sample of material.
In qualitative analysis all the atoms and molecules present are identified,
with particular attention to trace elements. In quantitative analysis the
exact weight of each constituent is obtained as well. Stoichiometry is the
branch of chemistry concerned with the weights of the chemicals
participating in chemical reactions.
ChIN - The Chemical Information Network -
Comprehensive directory of chemical information on the web.
A directory of chemistry resources on the WWW, located on the Sheffield
Providing information on all facets of the world-wide chemical industry.
Many links to web resources of interest to chemists and the chemical
Features searchable chemistry journals and databases, jobs, books, software,
conferences diary and ChemDex+.
Chemical Resources -
Many places to search chemical information in Internet, page held in
An information service for the German chemistry community. It provides
search engines for chemistry and various databases for chemical information.
Chemistry Guide -
Directory and search engine of chemistry related resources on the Internet.
Online networks in specialist areas, science, industry and product news, a
comprehensive events database, job centre, access to major references, and
Links for Chemists -
An extensive index of chemistry resources maintained at The University of
Medicinal Chemistry Links -
A collection of links for chemists and students involved in organic,
biochemical, computational, and/or medicinal chemistry research, maintained
by Virginia Commonwealth University.
Rolf Claessen's Chemistry Index -
Links to freeware, discounted software, free databases, societies,
spectroscopy resources, reaction mechanisms and online discussion forums.
The Wired Chemist -
A collection of Chemistry resources, including links to other sites and data
Maintains lists of events, links and jobs. Registered members can promote
their websites themselves.
Cefic: European Chemical Industry Council -
Cefic European Chemical Industry Council: information about chemical
industry and chemistry applications, health, safety and environmental
aspects, research, science, innovation, international trade, economics,
educational programmes, EU Enlargemen
Chemical Structure Association Trust -
International charity which promotes education, research and development in
the field of storage, processing and retrieval of information about chemical
structures, reactions and compounds.
European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) -
Provides a thorough overview of the chemical industry in Europe. Includes
news, updates, statistics, and educational information.
Green Chemistry Institute -
Non-profit organization that promotes the development and implementation of
science and technology to avoid the generation and production of hazardous
National Registry of Certified Chemists -
NRCC is an independent non-profit agency that offers certification for
professionals and technicians specializing in hygiene, toxicology, clinical,
environmental and analytical chemistry in the USA.
The Institute of Chemistry of Ireland -
Promotes chemistry in Ireland and supports the Irish chemical industry.
World Chlorine Council -
Represents the global chlorine and chlorinated products industries, and was
created to improve our understanding of the benefits of chlorine chemistry
and to address related health, environmental and public policy issues.
Visit this site for more information on safe
practices in the chemistry laboratory.
Chemistry information for high school and college students.
Some of the discoveries and controversies at the forefront of chemistry.
Resources for Teachers
Science and chemistry resource site compiled for students
Provides information related to Chemistry. A resource for teachers
Chemistry on the
Each year, chemistry professionals select outstanding chemistry-related Internet
sites. The winners are posted here .
Chemical On-Line Presentations
Chemistry presentations made before audiences around the world are announced and recorded on this hyperlinked calendar
International Union of Crystallography
resources include a world database, journals, reports, newsletters, info on upcoming
Chemistry News Groups
The department of chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles,
maintains this index of chemistry, biochemistry, biology and other science
Chemistry Educators reference
Features resources for
chemistry educators through its Web site. Digital textbook chapters and other
materials can serve as alternatives to traditional teaching
Chemistry Teaching Resources - on line
Hundreds of chemistry resources are easily available here for questing chemistry
teachers: from lesson plans to reference guides to experiments.
Element Percentage Calculator
This Web site allows visitors to calculate the percentage of particular elements
in chemical compounds. Italso links to an online chemistry resource called WebElements
Offers chats, events, vendor rating information, classifieds, and analytical chemistry links.
Resources in Chemistry
Well-developed directory of chemistry sites.
Refernce for Chemistry
Excelent site for chemistry resources.
Resources for chemists, materials scientists, and device technologists working on sol-gel related fields.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical
reactions within living organisms.This site is a resource for it.
Also offers links and message and chat boards .
indexes educational sites with biological content useful to biochemists and other researchers
An online journal dedicated to the Chemical teacher at the college/university and AP high school level.
Reviewed, monthly, electronic journal.
Aims to promote the use of the Internet and development of network resources to enable chemists to better communicate.
Biological Chemistry Journal
A resource journal for Biological chemistry
Monthly international scientific journal presenting information concerning the theory and practice of chromatography.
Monthly journal containing reviewed articles, industry news and links.
This Journal brings together under one cover researchers in chemistry and environment
Review of Biochemistry
Internet Journal of
Lists the Annual reviews of Biochemistry and other details
A Journal from The Biochemical Society.
Conventional scientific journal. In addition, there is a magazine section
which contains more topical issues.
American Chemical Society
The American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, provides
information on its products and services.
Chemical Heritage Foundation
Strengthens public understanding of the chemical and life sciences and technologies.
Useful services and links for the chemistry community.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry
National professional organisation for those interested in chemistry.
A link to the ChemKey search database,
conference info and the Society's newsletter are also featured.
Australian Chemical Institute
Professional and learned society serving the needs of chemists and the community in Australia.
Swedish Chemical Society
Seeking to promote the development of chemistry and its applications.
Chemistry Help Online
An interactive organic chemistry learning tool for students at the high school level.
Conference on Organic Chemistry
The Electronic Conference on Trends in Organic Chemistry site contains news from
the most recent conference, along with pointers to older materials.
organic literature database containing 45,000 references
Diagrams of more than 300 named organic reactions with references.
Organic Chemistry Resources
A large collection of sites for the professional organic chemist.
Equations for all the reactions in a typical organic chemistry course
A basic guide to organometallic chemistry